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All Posts Tagged: women



This is simply pain during menstruation; it could be severe or mild. It is menstrual pain that’s not a symptom of an underlying gynecologic disorder but is related to the normal process of menstruation.


There are two types of dysmenorrhea:

  • Primary dysmenorrhea:  Primary dysmenorrhea is the most common type of dysmenorrhea, affecting more than 50% of women, and quite severe in about 15%. Primary dysmenorrheal affects girls during adolescence. Fortunately for many women, the problem eases as they mature, particularly after a pregnancy. Although it may be painful and sometimes debilitating for brief periods of time, it is not harmful.
  • Secondary dysmenorrhea: is menstrual pain that is generally related to some kind of gynaecologic disorder. Most of these disorders can be easily treated with medications or surgery. Secondary dysmenorrhea is more likely to affect women during adulthood.


Primary dysmenorrhea is thought to be caused by excessive levels of prostaglandins, hormones that make your uterus contract during menstruation and childbirth. This pain probably results from contractions of your uterus that occur when the blood supply to its lining (endometrium) is reduced.

Other factors that may make the pain of primary dysmenorrhea even worse include:

  • Uterus that tilts backward (retroverted uterus) instead of forward
  • lack of exercise
  • psychological or social stress
  • smoking
  • alcohol consumption
  • being overweight
  • Menarche ( starting menstruating before age 11.)

Secondary dysmenorrhea may be caused by a number of conditions, including:

  • Fibroids – benign tumors that develop within the uterine wall or are attached to it
  • Adenomyosis – the tissue that lines the uterus (called the endometrium) begins to grow within its muscular walls
  • Sexually transmitted infection (STI)
  • Endometriosis – fragments of the endometrial lining that are found on other pelvic organs
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which is primarily an infection of the fallopian tubes, but can also affect the ovaries, uterus, and cervix
  • Ovarian cyst or tumor
  • Use of an intrauterine device (IUD), a birth control method

Symptoms and Complications

The main symptom of dysmenorrhea is pain. It occurs in your lower abdomen during menstruation and may also be felt in your hips lower back, or thighs.

Other symptoms may include:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Dizziness

For most women, the pain usually starts shortly before or during their menstrual period, peaks after 24 hours, and subsides after 2 to 3 days. Sometimes clots or pieces of bloody tissue from the lining of the uterus are expelled from the uterus, causing pain.

Dysmenorrhea pain may be spasmodic (sharp pelvic cramps at the start of menstrual flow) or congestive (deep, dull ache). The symptoms of secondary dysmenorrhea often start sooner in the menstrual cycle than those of primary dysmenorrhea, and usually last longer.

Making the Diagnosis

If you experience painful periods, check with your doctor to see whether you might have an underlying disorder that is causing secondary dysmenorrhea. You may be given a pelvic examination, and your blood and urine may be tested.

A doctor may also wish to use ultrasound to get a picture of your internal organs or even use the technique of laparoscopy for a direct look into your uterus.

Treatment and Prevention

Your doctor may prescribe medications or other remedies depending on the cause of the dysmenorrhea.

Primary dysmenorrhea is usually treated by medication such as an analgesic medication. Many women find relief with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen , panadol extra , tabalon.

Some doctors may prescribe hormone medications. Oral contraceptives also may also help reduce the severity of the symptoms. Nausea and vomiting may be relieved with an antiemetic medication, but these symptoms usually disappear without treatment as cramps subside. Implantable contraception and the Mirena IUD, which release low levels of the hormone progesterone, have also been found to be very helpful in decreasing pain.

Women who do not respond after three months of treatment with NSAIDs and hormonal contraceptives may have secondary dysmenorrhea. Treatment for secondary dysmenorrhea will vary with the underlying cause. Diagnostic laparoscopy, other hormonal treatments, or trial of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) are potential next steps. Surgery can be done to remove fibroids or to widen the cervical canal if it is too narrow.

In addition to the above, other non-medicinal treatments for the pain of dysmenorrhea include:

  • lying on your back, supporting your knees with a pillow
  • holding a heating pad or hot water bottle on your abdomen or lower back
  • taking a warm bath
  • gently massaging your abdomen
  • doing mild exercises like stretching, walking, or biking – exercise may improve blood flow and reduce pelvic pain
  • getting plenty of rest and avoiding stressful situations as your period approaches
  • yoga
  • having an orgasm

You may also wish to consider alternative therapies such as hypnosis, herbal medications, or acupuncture. Be cautious with herbal medications. They may be “natural,” but they are not necessarily safe or free of side effects. They can also interact with other medications you may be taking. Check with your doctor or pharmacist before trying any herbal medications.

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These breast problems usually occur as a result of faulty breast feeding Techniques.
These include:

1). Breast Engorgement
2). Cracked Nipples
3). Mastitis
4). Breast Abscess

1). What is Breast Engorgement:
This is a condition that develops when the amount of milk produced is in excess of the amount that is being removed.


* Wear tight fitted bras
* Take Paracetamol
* Do warm water compression

This are sores that develop on the nipple when babies sucks abnormally, as a result of improper positioning of the mouth of the babies to the breast. So the baby sucks only the nipple ( which is the pointed area) instead of the areola (the black round area around the nipple).This problem usually occur in women with inverted nipple.


* Mother should ensure that baby’s gum is on the areola so that the whole of the nipples goes into the baby’s mouth.Mother can apply Lanolin( a nipple cream)to the sore.
* Expose the breast to air or breast pad.
* Do not stop baby from breast feeding because if you do, you will develop breast engorgement.
* Express milk from the painful breast while baby sucks the normal breast.

This means redness and swelling of the breast tissues. This condition is caused by a bacteria organism called staphylococcus aureus. Their are two common types of mastitis, one in which the breast tissues are swollen, painful,and makes patient feel unwell, having feverish condition but no pus formation.One on the other hand, patient has same complains as above but associated with pus formation in the breast.

* Take paracetamol to relieve pain.
* Stop baby from sucking.
* See your health care provider for further treatment.

This occur if mastitis is not treated.There is a large collection of pus inside the breast, thus leading to persistence fever and patient becomes very sick.

See a doctor for treatment.



* It builds their physiological ability
* It provides adequate Nutrition
* It creates bonding between mother and child
* It helps reduce the rick of infection, such as (gastroenteritis and respiratory infection)
* It helps improve the immune system.
* Decrease allergic disorder
* Decrease in childhood sickness


* Personal satisfaction
* Pregnancy inhibition
* Involution of uterus is faster
* Protect mother against cancer of the breast.


* Morbidity decrease ( the rate at which deadly diseases occur)
* Environment friendly
* Decreases cost of infant feeding
* It helps in child spacing


* Breast milk not enough for baby
* Breast milk can be poisonous
* Not fashionable
* Makes breast lose its shape
* Small breast size not good enough

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